Body is the outer wooden or metal part of the guitar which is responsible for the clarity of the sound produced. The type of body adds the flavour to your guitar. This can be changed according to the guitar type.
It is the part between the guitar strings and the part of the body. The strings supported on it and vibrate on it.
SOUND HOLE :
It helps to amplify the sound of the guitar strumming or lead pattern. It comes in different shapes like round hole, F hole and D hole.
It helps to support the strings and provides the required bend for the strings which helps to make it playable.
Basically it is the upper part of the fretboard under which truss rod is provided or not. But in the most cases truss rod is provided.
Pickguard is the protection of the thin layer which protects the guitar from the scratches during strumming with pick.
It is the thing on which you move your left hand and right hand fingers to produce the different music according to the notes.
This is the simple screw on the neck of the guitar which used to tune the guitar by rotating them clockwise or anticlockwise.